Howtos / Articles

Extract the public certificate and private key from a pfx file using OpenSSL

This guide will show you how to convert a .pfx certificate file into its separate public certificate and private key files. This can be useful if you want to export a certificate (in the pfx format) from a Windows server, and load it into Apache or Nginx for example, which requires a separate public certificate and private key file. In the examples below, the following files will be used: – This will be the PFX file containing the public…

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Delete a user from a MySQL server

This howto outlines the steps to remove a user from a MySQL server. Run the MySQL client: $ mysql -u root -p You will be asked for a password. If you don’t have a password set, simply press enter when prompted. Run the following command to delete the user: DROP USER ‘usertodelete’@'localhost’; This deletes the user called ‘usertodelete’. Change the user name and host values as required. Flush the privileges to make sure the dropped user has been removed: FLUSH…

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PHP FPM Unix Socket Error 13 Permission Denied After Updating Ubuntu

If you have a Ubuntu web server (running Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, 13.10, 12.04 LTS, or 10.04 LTS) set up using PHP FPM with Unix sockets, be warned that a recent security patch that fixes an issue with the PHP FPM socket permissions, may also break existing configurations, preventing your website from load php files. After this patch gets installed, you may find your unix socket now no longer accepts connections from your web server user, and you will see an…

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Using sed to replace a string in a file

The ‘sed’ command can be used to easily replace all occurrences of one string in a text file, with another string. For example: sed -i “s/wordtofind/replacewithword/g” /path/to/file.txt This command will find all occurrences of “wordtofind” and replace them on the fly with “replacewithword” in the file “/path/to/file.txt”. The “-i” command switch specifies to edit the file in place, otherwise it will just display the output to the standard output. Run it without the “-i” switch to ensure it runs correctly,…

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Synchronize the time on Ubuntu from a NTP Server

To synchronize the time on a Ubuntu computer, with the time from a NTP server, you can simply run the following command: sudo ntpdate Replace “” with your NTP time server of choice. Example output: $ sudo ntpdate 1 Jul 00:50:12 ntpdate[31843]: adjust time server offset -0.001309 sec $ Your time will now be synchronized to the time from the NTP server. You can put this in a cron job to periodically update the time, to ensure…

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